Fisheries Global Information System, 2006

Many different techniques have been used to preserve fish quality and to increase their shelf life. They are designed to inhibit or reduce the metabolic changes that lead to fish spoilage by controlling specific parameters of the fish and/or its environment. These techniques can be classified as outlined below.

Generally, they encompass a wide array of technologies used to decrease the fish temperature to levels where metabolic activities – catalyzed by autolytic or microbial enzymes – are reduced or completely stopped. This is possible by refrigeration or freezing where the fish temperature is reduced, respectively, to approximately 0 °C or less than – 18°C.

Fish refrigeration can use cool air circulating around the fish (mechanical refrigeration) or icing. Fish icing and boxing on-board fishing vessels is not always possible in the case of small pelagic that are caught in large quantities. These are chilled using refrigerated seawater (RSW) or chilled seawater (CSW). Chilled or frozen fish products require additional cooling in cold store to avoid an increase in temperature. The design (size, insulation, palletization) and management of cold stores are key for fish quality and energy saving. A major environmental issue relates to the development of alternative refrigerants to replace the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are damaging to ozone layers.


How to Make Banana Powder, Banana Starch


Banana powder can be used as starch substitute. Try to make some for daily cooking needs. Apply it to any recipe that require cornstarch such as corned beef, siomai, fish balls and banana blossom patties. Try on small amounts to see the outcome and avoid waste.


green  banana
sodium metabisulfite or sodium erythorbate, the latter is recommended while the first is now discouraged.


Materials and Equipment:

stainless-steel knife
mechanical drier
wire trays lined with sinamay or bamboo trays
OPP or PE plastic bags of 0.003 mm thickness, popular bags are now polypropylene, PP


1.    All fruits should be mature green. Set aside any ripe banana and use it for other recipe.
2.    Wash thoroughly and peel. Force the peel off carefully with a sharp knife. Soak in water and rinse.
3.    Cut into thin slices (5-7mm thick). Use a guided knife or a mechanical slicer.
4.    Sulphite by dipping in a 2000ppm SO2 solution for 1 minute. Skip this step if product browning does not bother you.
5.    Dry the fruit in a single layer at 60-75ºC until hard and brittle, equal to a moisture content of 12%. Sun dry in case oven dryer is not available.
6.    Pulverized  in waring blender or electric grinder.
7.    Packed in tightly sealed container.

How to Make Toyo , Soy Sauce

Soybeans – ½ kg
Salt solution (18%)- 6 liters or 24 cup
Mold (Aspergillus Oryzae)
Flour – ½ kg
Rice bran – ½ teaspoon

Materials and Equipment:
stainless/enameled kettle
measuring cups and spoons
chopping board
strainer, stainless
wooden ladle
casserole, stainless
wide mouth jars
sterilized glass jars with new caps
bamboo tray
pressure cooker


1. Clean, wash and soak soybeans overnight. Drain well. Put soybeans in a casserole and cook until soft. Cook soybeans in a pressure cooker (15-lb pressure) for one hour or cook until tender. Mix soybeans and flour thoroughly. Sprinkle rice bran with molds (three days old) over the mixture and mix well. Spread mixture 1-2 inches thick in a tray. Cover with clean cloth or paper and allow the molds to grow. Stir occasionally.

2. After 3-4 days, transfer the mixture to a container with salt solution. Cover the container with paper or cloth and shake well. Set aside for one month. Stir once in a while. Strain the mixture through cheesecloth. Transfer to a sterilized bottle and cover. Pasteurize and store.
Source: Great Flavor of Soybean. Book Series No. 155/1996. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development.

Basic Food Labeling Requirements


I  always consult this article whenever I am designing a new label for our new product. You may also find it useful.



Excerpt from: CODEX STAN 1-1985 (Rev. 1-1991)

Packaged food shall not be described or presented on any label or in any labeling in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive or is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding its character in any respect.
Food shall not be described or presented on any label or in any labeling by words, pictorial or other devices which refer to or are suggestive either directly or indirectly, of any other product with which such food might be confused, or in such a manner as to lead the purchaser or consumer to suppose that the food is connected with such other product.


The following information shall appear on the label of packaged foods as applicable to the food being labeled.

Name of the Food
1. The name shall indicate the true nature of the food and normally be specific and not generic:
2. In other cases, the name prescribed by national legislation shall be used.
3. In the absence of any such name, either a common or usual name existing by common usage as an appropriate descriptive term which was not misleading or confusing to the consumer shall be used.
4. There shall appear on the label either in conjunction with, or in close proximity to, the name of the food, such additional words or phrases as necessary to avoid misleading or confusing the consumer in regard to the true nature and physical condition of the food including but not limited to the type of packing medium, style, and the condition or type of treatment it has undergone; for example: dried, concentrated, reconstituted, smoked.

List of Ingredients
1. Except for single ingredient foods, a list of ingredients shall be declared on the label.
2. The list of ingredients shall be headed or preceded by an appropriate title which consists of or includes the term ‘ingredient’.
3. All ingredients shall be listed in descending order of ingoing weight (m/m) at the time of the manufacture of the food.
4. Where an ingredient is itself the product of two or more ingredients, such a compound ingredient may be declared, as such, in the list of ingredients, provided that it is immediately accompanied by a list, in brackets, of its ingredients in descending order of proportion.
Net Contents and Drained Weight
The net contents shall be declared in the following manner:
(i) for liquid foods, by volume;
(ii) for solid foods, by weight;
(iii) for semi-solid or viscous foods, either by weight or volume.

In addition to the declaration of net contents, a food packed in a liquid medium shall carry a declaration in the metric system of the drained weight of the food. For the purposes of this requirement, liquid medium means water, aqueous solutions of sugar and salt, fruit and vegetable juices in canned fruits and vegetables only, or vinegar, either singly or in combination.

Name and Address
The name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, importer, exporter or vendor of the food shall be declared.

Country of Origin
The country of origin of the food shall be declared. When a food undergoes processing in a second country which changes its nature, the country in which the processing is performed shall be considered to be the country of origin for the purposes of labeling.

Lot Identification
Each container shall be embossed or otherwise permanently marked in code or in clear to identify the producing factory and the lot.

Date Marking and Storage Instructions

The following date marking shall apply:
(i) The “date of minimum durability” shall be declared.
(ii) This shall consist at least of:
• the day and the month for products with a minimum durability of not more than three months;
• the month and the year for products with a minimum durability of more than three months. If the month is December, it is sufficient to indicate the year.
(iii) The date shall be declared by the words:
• “Best before…” where the day is indicated;
• “Best before end…” in other cases.

Instructions for Use
Instructions for use, including reconstitution, where applicable, shall be included on the label, as necessary, to ensure correct utilization of the food.

Basic Food Hygiene


For budding food entrepreneur , here is the condensed version food hygiene book you can read…

CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4 (2003)

Environmental Hygiene

The potential effects of primary production activities on the safety and suitability of food should be considered at all times. In particular, this includes identifying any specific points in such activities where a high probability of contamination may exist and taking specific measures to minimize that probability.


Producers should as far as practicable implement measures to:
– control contamination from air, soil, water, feedstuffs, fertilizers (including natural fertilizers), pesticides, veterinary drugs or any other agent used in primary production;
– control plant and animal health so that it does not pose a threat to human health through food consumption, or adversely affect the suitability of the product; and
– protect food sources from fecal and other contamination.

In particular, care should be taken to manage wastes, and store harmful substances appropriately. On-farm programs which achieve specific food safety goals are becoming an important part of primary production and should be encouraged.

Establishment Location

Potential sources of contamination need to be considered when deciding where to locate food establishments, as well as the effectiveness of any reasonable measures that might be taken to protect food. Establishments should not be located anywhere where, after considering such protective measures, it is clear that there will remain a threat to food safety or suitability. In particular, establishments should normally be located away from:
– environmentally polluted areas and industrial activities which pose a serious threat of contaminating food;
– areas subject to flooding unless sufficient safeguards are provided;
– areas prone to infestations of pests;
– areas where wastes, either solid or liquid, cannot be removed effectively.

Premises and Rooms

Where appropriate, the internal design and layout of food establishments should permit good food hygiene practices, including protection against cross-contamination between and during operations by foodstuffs.
Structures within food establishments should be soundly built of durable materials and be easy to maintain, clean and where appropriate, able to be disinfected. In particular the following specific conditions should be satisfied where necessary to protect the safety and suitability of food:
– the surfaces of walls, partitions and floors should be made of impervious materials with no toxic effect in intended use;
– walls and partitions should have a smooth surface up to a height appropriate to the operation;
– floors should be constructed to allow adequate drainage and cleaning;
– ceilings and overhead fixtures should be constructed and finished to minimize the build up of dirt and condensation, and the shedding of particles;
– windows should be easy to clean, be constructed to minimize the build up of dirt and where necessary, be fitted with removable and cleanable insect-proof screens. Where necessary, windows should be fixed;
– doors should have smooth, non-absorbent surfaces, and be easy to clean and, where necessary, disinfect;
– working surfaces that come into direct contact with food should be in sound condition, durable and easy to clean, maintain and disinfect. They should be made of smooth, non-absorbent materials, and inert to the food, to detergents and disinfectants under normal operating conditions.