Anyone planning to build a food establishment should invest first in this very important thing, how to cook delicious food. Even home-based food selling venture can be successful if they are serving consistent delicious foods. Good food is viral, it will spread like a contagious virus.
The very good example is the tv commercial of Liquid Genie, an all around food flavor enhancer. A delicious food cooked by mom will be known to his family, neighbors, officemate of her husband, friends of her husband’s boss, auntie’s chat-mate, friends of her friends and so on.
Better start honing your cooking skills before entering in any food ventures. Enroll in a culinary school, read cooking magazines, search food websites for tips and watch cooking shows as source of knowledge and good ideas.
Water boils at 212° Fahrenheit. This is true if your location is not far from sea level. In Baguio City, water boiling point is 209° Fahrenheit. A three degrees lower because boiling point drops one degree for every 500-foot increase in elevation. Baguio city is approximately 1,500 ft above sea level.
If you own a food processing plant in Manila and planning to move in Baguio or in any Benguet Province, keep in mind that you need to adjust some processing parameters. Failure to adjust temperature and time ratio may result to product spoilage.
The following are guides for adjustment. Data courtesy of USDA.
For boiling-water canner, adjust processing time as follows:
below 1,000ft = 20 minutes
1,001–3,000ft = 25 minutes
3,001–6,000ft = 30 minutes
Above 6,000ft = 35 minutes
When using dial-gauge pressure canner, for the processing time of 10 minutes pressure be adjusted:
0–2,000ft = 6 lb
2,001–4,000ft = 7 lb
4,001–6,000ft = 8 lb
6,001–8,000ft = 9 lb
When using weighted-gauge pressure canner, for the processing time of 10 minutes pressure be adjusted:
0–1,000ft = 5 lb
Above1,000ft = 10 lb
The optimum condition for yeast fermentation are as follows:
1) Absence of oxygen.
2) Temperature range of 20° to 30° C
3) pH range of 4 to 4.5
4) Minimum water activity of 0.85
5) Sugar content of less than 40%
The conditions are explained by Fermented Fruit and Vegetables, A Global Perspective, by Mike Battcock and Sue Azam-Ali:
Most yeasts require an abundance of oxygen for growth, therefore by controlling the supply of oxygen, their growth can be checked. In addition to oxygen, they require a basic substrate such as sugar. Some yeasts can ferment sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of air but require oxygen for growth. They produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide from simple sugars such as glucose and fructose.
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
Glucose =yeast= ethyl alcohol + carbon dioxide
In conditions of excess oxygen (and in the presence of acetobacter) the alcohol can be oxidised to form acetic acid. This is undesirable if the end product is a fruit alcohol, but is a technique employed for the production of fruit vinegars.
Yeasts are active in a very broad temperature range – from 0 to 50° C, with an optimum temperature range of 20° to 30° C.
The optimum pH for most micro-organisms is near the neutral point (pH 7.0). Moulds and yeasts are usually acid tolerant and are therefore associated with the spoilage of acidic foods. Yeasts can grow in a pH range of 4 to 4.5 and moulds can grow from pH 2 to 8.5, but favour an acid pH (Mountney and Gould, 1988).
In terms of water requirements, yeasts are intermediate between bacteria and moulds. Bacteria have the highest demands for water, while moulds have the least need. Normal yeasts require a minimum water activity of 0.85 or a relative humidity of 88%.
Yeasts are fairly tolerant of high concentrations of sugar and grow well in solutions containing 40% sugar. At concentrations higher than this, only a certain group of yeasts – the osmophilic type – can survive. There are only a few yeasts that can tolerate sugar concentrations of 65-70% and these grow very slowly in these conditions (Board, 1983). Some yeasts – for example the Debaromyces – can tolerate high salt concentrations. Another group which can tolerate high salt concentrations and low water activity is Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is associated with fermentations in which salting is an integral part of the process.
I often buy Quaker Oats. I am using it to create my own cereal drink. One mug of hot water plus three tablespoons of quakers oat and milk. It really tastes good. Choose instant quaker to if you hate cooking or too busy to prepare it on stove top.
Why do I am taking Quaker Oats? Because it contains soluble fibers, Beta Glucan, that act like sponges and soak up cholesterol to remove it from our body. Cholesterol build up in blood vessels is fatal because it blocks blood flow.
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Nutritional Information of Quaker Oats:
Serving size: 35g
Approximate number of servings: 11
Knives are very useful in food processing. They are used for slicing, cutting, peeling and chopping. They have different designs and each designs are made for its purpose. We have the sticking knife, boning, skinning, slaughter and ham knife.
Of all the knife types, there is a recommended design made for safety purposes. Designed to avoid injuries and cross contamination during processing operations.
Judge the three knives below!
Knives used in meat operations should have basic safety features. The handle should be made of plastic material with non-slip surface and designed to allow a firm and safe grip. Plastic handles are also a hygienic requirement. The end of the handle is often slightly enlarged,handle knob, to prevent the knife from slipping out of the hand and the portion close to the blade should have a similar enlarged design to avoid the hand from slipping over onto the blade.
Raw-cooked meat mixes are used for the material, from which meat balls are shaped. These mixes are mainly fabricated without curing substances but with common salt, as for the majority of such products a grey colour
is required. Formulations usually have high contents of lean meat (fat and water contents significantly reduced) to make these products firmelastic. The salt content is reduced to 10-12g per kilo and often herbs are added.
Especially in Asia, there are several varieties of low-cost meat balls on the market. These meat balls are used as street food and in fast food outlets. One common formulation is shown below:
Raw materials: (calculated for 10 kg batch)
40.00 % Pork meat trimmings, lean 4.000 kg
20.00 % TVP (re-hydrated 1:3) 2.000 kg
10.00 % Wheat flour 1.000 kg
10.00 % Ice (potable water) 1.000 kg
15.00 % Fatty pork tissues 1.500 kg
5.00 % Potato or corn starch 0.500 kg
Additives and spices: (per kg raw materials)
10.0 g Common salt
2.0 g Phosphate
2.0 g White pepper, ground 60.00 g
0.2 g Coriander, ground 6.00 g
0.2 g Ginger, ground 6.00 g
Gunter Heinz & Peter Hautzinger – Meat Processing Technology