Pectin, in its simplest definition are group of substances used to turn any fruit or fruit juice to jam or jelly (including marmalade). Fruits natural pectin content maybe harnessed to successfully produce the products or a commercially manufactured version maybe added. There are two pectin types available. It is important to know their basic properties an differences prior to production process.
Low Methoxyl Pectin = LMP
1) Used to make low to zero sugar jams and jellies. A choice for healthier products.
2) It is purchased commercially. The pectin extracted from fruits is processed to free some of the carboxyl groups on the molecule.
3) These pectin bind to calcium ions in absence of sugar and acid. Popular example is dicalcium phosphate salt.
4) Sugar and acidifier such as citric and tartaric are not needed. They maybe added however to enhance flavor.
5) Produce thermally irreversible gels. Reprocessing may not be possible in case of mistake. Pectin gels that are able to hold hot soup are LM type.
6) Maybe treated with ammonia to require less calcium. It is called amidated low methyl pectin.
7) Work well with whey protein (milk) as source of calcium to commence gelatinization.
8) More expensive than HMP.
9) A must for low to zero sugar jam and jellies.
High Methoxyl Pectin = HMP
1) Use to make high sugar jam and jellies.
2) High sugar content and low acid properties are necessary for good gel formation. Average of 60% sugar.
3) Most commonly used to make jam and jellies.
4) Further divided to two categories, the rapid set and the slow set. The first for product with desired suspended solids while the latter is for clear jellies.
5) Cheaper than LMP.
6) Fruit natural pectin content maybe used as replacement.