Mangosteen Xanthones Tips and Some Laboratory Studies

TIPS…

I am looking for mangosteen tea preparation steps. Tips on how to steep/boil fresh skin or dry rind. The specific temperature for how many minutes or hours. However, I found out that xanthones, the dominant and most important mangosteen antioxidant, is relatively heat stable. Maybe boiling it is fine or steeping might be better.

Here are the other tips I found around the web. Most of them are supported by scientific studies.

1) Long term moderate consumption is recommended. Xanthones are absorb only in small amounts. Large doses are not beneficial and tend to lower absorption efficiency.

Xanthone Bioavailability (Preliminary)||| Michael W. Pugh, B.S. ||| Research & Development for XanGo, LLC

2) Aside from xanthones, it has other beneficial substance like catechins, polysaccharides, proanthocyanidins and sterols.

3) Oven drying 60ºC is recommended for maximum retention of sensory qualities.  Addition of whey powder is preferred over maltodextrin – it helps maintain xanthone content and improves its solubility.

Drying Process and Mangosteen Rind Powder Product. ||| R. Sothornvit ||| International Society for Horticultural Science

4) Xanthones when taken with a high fat meal. Showed that xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed when ingested along with a high-fat meal, although release of xanthones from pericarp particles during digestion may be limited.

Xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed and partially conjugated by healthy adults. ||| Chitchumroonchokchai C, Riedl KM, Suksumrarn S, Clinton SK, Kinghorn AD, Failla ML. ||| Department of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. ||| J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):675-80. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Some Health Benefits supported with laboratory studies…

1) Xanthones showed anti-leukemic activities in animal studies. The allanxanthone C and  macluraxanthone.

Therapeutic activity of two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ||| J Hematol Oncol. 2010 Dec 7;3:49.  Loisel S, Le Ster K, Meyer M, Berthou C, Youinou P, Kolb JP, Billard C. ||| EA 2216, Universit de Bretagne, Brest, France.

2) Twenty seven oxygenated xanthones showed anti-fungal activities against strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus.  The 1,2-dihydroxyxanthone was found to be the most effective.

Antifungal activity of xanthones: evaluation of their effect on ergosterol biosynthesis by high-performance liquid chromatography. ||| Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011 Mar;77(3):212-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2010.01072.x. Epub 2011 Jan 19. |||  Pinto E, Afonso C, Duarte S, Vale-Silva L, Costa E, Sousa E, Pinto M. ||| Research Center of Medicinal Chemistry – University of Porto (CEQUIMED-UP), R. Anbal Cunha, 164, 4050-047, Porto, Portugal. epinto@ff.up.pt

3) Alpha-mangostin maybe useful in therapeutic treatment of breast cancer.

Alterations in Cell Cycle and Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells Treated with α-Mangostin Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarp. ||| Kurose H, Shibata MA, Iinuma M, Otsuki Y. ||| Division of Life Sciences, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. ||| J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:672428. Epub 2012 Apr 8.

4) Laboratory study. Mangosteen xanthones showed high microbial activities.

Antibacterial activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (L.) and their structure-activity relationship studies. ||| Dharmaratne HR, Sakagami Y, Piyasena KG, Thevanesam V. ||| a Natural Products Programme, Institute of Fundamental Studies , Kandy , Sri Lanka.

5) Mangosteen xanthose  has an anti-angiogenic effect. Anti-angiogenic are substance used to control growth of new blood vessels.  Inhibitors are used to treat cancer, macular degeneration in the eye, and other diseases that involve a proliferation of blood vessels.

Anti-angiogenic effect of α-mangostin. ||| Shiozaki T, Fukai M, Hermawati E, Juliawaty LD, Syah YM, Hakim EH, Puthongking P, Suzuki T, Kinoshita K, Takahashi K, Koyama ||| K. J Nat Med. 2012 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print] ||| Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan.

6) Alpha-mangostin might be useful for preventing or treating obesity.

α-Mangostin induces apoptosis and suppresses differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via inhibiting fatty acid synthase. ||| Quan X, Wang Y, Ma X, Liang Y, Tian W, Ma Q, Jiang H, Zhao Y. ||| College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ||| PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33376. Epub 2012 Mar 9.

There are over 170 mangosteen related studies on PubMed.gov. Take some time seeing it for yourself.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/?term=mangosteen

References:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf?booknrarnr=928_29
http://mangosteenmd.com/history/xanthone.php
http://www.thewholefruit.com/research.php


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