How to Make Coconut Sugar

Coconut sugar is a natural sugar made from coconut sap.It is healthier compared to other sugar substitute. It has low glycemic index (GI) of 35. Having low GI value, it is safe for diabetics. Coconut sugar can be use for coffee, tea, baking and cooking.


1. Get freshly harvested coconut sap. The taste should be sweet, not alcoholic and not sour.
2. Boil the coconut sap to evaporate the water over moderate heat with occasional stirring until the sap thickens at 115ºC. Buy a good candy thermometer and avoid the hassle of taking chances – the tantyahan method.
3. Turn off the heat and continue stirring until the sugar become granular.
4. Pulverize large chunks and pack.

Kaong or sugar palm is a close relative of coconut, you may want to produce healthy sugar from it.


shelled peanuts – 1 kg
cooking oil – ½ liter
refined salt – ½ tsp.
garlic powder – ¼ tsp.

measuring cups
measuring spoons
weighing scale

1.    Soak the peanuts in boiled water for 5-10 minutes.
2.    Take out from boiled water and place peanuts in basin with tap water. Remove peanut skin.
3.    Sun dry the peanuts for 2 days (at least 12 hours).
4.    Deep fry in hot cooking oil,150ºC, for 2-3 minutes.
5.    Place in cheesecloth to excess remove oil. Cool and sprinkle with refined salt and garlic powder.
6.    Pack in clean jars or .003 PP/PE bags.
7.    Seal and store.


Some vendors are selling roasted peanuts. They are emphasizing that their product is not deep-fried in oil, roasted instead. Roasted is the real less grease peanut, no sinful cooking oil added. I have never tried it yet however.


Update as of May 7, 2012.  I made a new version of less-grease peanut recipe, the pan roasted peanuts. See it after pressing the link.



Fisheries Global Information System, 2006

Many different techniques have been used to preserve fish quality and to increase their shelf life. They are designed to inhibit or reduce the metabolic changes that lead to fish spoilage by controlling specific parameters of the fish and/or its environment. These techniques can be classified as outlined below.

Generally, they encompass a wide array of technologies used to decrease the fish temperature to levels where metabolic activities – catalyzed by autolytic or microbial enzymes – are reduced or completely stopped. This is possible by refrigeration or freezing where the fish temperature is reduced, respectively, to approximately 0 °C or less than – 18°C.

Fish refrigeration can use cool air circulating around the fish (mechanical refrigeration) or icing. Fish icing and boxing on-board fishing vessels is not always possible in the case of small pelagic that are caught in large quantities. These are chilled using refrigerated seawater (RSW) or chilled seawater (CSW). Chilled or frozen fish products require additional cooling in cold store to avoid an increase in temperature. The design (size, insulation, palletization) and management of cold stores are key for fish quality and energy saving. A major environmental issue relates to the development of alternative refrigerants to replace the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are damaging to ozone layers.


How to Make Banana Powder, Banana Starch


Banana powder can be used as starch substitute. Try to make some for daily cooking needs. Apply it to any recipe that require cornstarch such as corned beef, siomai, fish balls and banana blossom patties. Try on small amounts to see the outcome and avoid waste.


green  banana
sodium metabisulfite or sodium erythorbate, the latter is recommended while the first is now discouraged.


Materials and Equipment:

stainless-steel knife
mechanical drier
wire trays lined with sinamay or bamboo trays
OPP or PE plastic bags of 0.003 mm thickness, popular bags are now polypropylene, PP


1.    All fruits should be mature green. Set aside any ripe banana and use it for other recipe.
2.    Wash thoroughly and peel. Force the peel off carefully with a sharp knife. Soak in water and rinse.
3.    Cut into thin slices (5-7mm thick). Use a guided knife or a mechanical slicer.
4.    Sulphite by dipping in a 2000ppm SO2 solution for 1 minute. Skip this step if product browning does not bother you.
5.    Dry the fruit in a single layer at 60-75ºC until hard and brittle, equal to a moisture content of 12%. Sun dry in case oven dryer is not available.
6.    Pulverized  in waring blender or electric grinder.
7.    Packed in tightly sealed container.

How to Make Toyo , Soy Sauce

Soybeans – ½ kg
Salt solution (18%)- 6 liters or 24 cup
Mold (Aspergillus Oryzae)
Flour – ½ kg
Rice bran – ½ teaspoon

Materials and Equipment:
stainless/enameled kettle
measuring cups and spoons
chopping board
strainer, stainless
wooden ladle
casserole, stainless
wide mouth jars
sterilized glass jars with new caps
bamboo tray
pressure cooker


1. Clean, wash and soak soybeans overnight. Drain well. Put soybeans in a casserole and cook until soft. Cook soybeans in a pressure cooker (15-lb pressure) for one hour or cook until tender. Mix soybeans and flour thoroughly. Sprinkle rice bran with molds (three days old) over the mixture and mix well. Spread mixture 1-2 inches thick in a tray. Cover with clean cloth or paper and allow the molds to grow. Stir occasionally.

2. After 3-4 days, transfer the mixture to a container with salt solution. Cover the container with paper or cloth and shake well. Set aside for one month. Stir once in a while. Strain the mixture through cheesecloth. Transfer to a sterilized bottle and cover. Pasteurize and store.
Source: Great Flavor of Soybean. Book Series No. 155/1996. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development.