The Difference Between Tuba and Lambanog

The tuba, a popular alcoholic drink of Leyte was featured on Jessica Soho recently. It is a reddish wine from coconut sap. Frankly, the tuba I know is the cloudy fresh coconut sap with a mixture of sweet and alcoholic taste. It only last for few hours cause the fermentation of sugar to alcohol and of alcohol to vinegar are fast. Anyway, their version is reddish brown and has a stable shelf life. wine in glass

The well known lambanog also came from coconut sap but it does not mean that they are the same. They are both alcoholic beverages but undergo different processes.

After sap collection, the sap is added with barok wood which will give the characteristic reddish color. Stored in cool room temperature to allow natural fermentation. High storage temperature will probably cause spoilage, turning to vinegar.

Tuba comes in two variations, the bahal and bahalina. Bahal is fermented and aged for one to six months while bahalina is aged for over six months and has higher alcohol content.

On the other hand, lambanog is colorless. Flavor variations are created by soaking food of choice like bubble gum, grape and langka. After sap collection, the sap is stored in cool room temperature to allow natural fermentation, about a day or two. Then the fermented sap is passed through a large distilling apparatus. See lambanog.

The Tuba of Leyte is somewhat similar to toddy. See Making Coconut / Kaong Toddy.

Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Accepts coaching and consultancy services. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.

Research Paper – Harvesting Process For Kaong/ Irok

I was surfing the web when I accidentally saw this article. I am happy cause my name is written on research paper. We did the research when I was still working at Cavite State University. Thanks to PCARRD-DOST for publishing the research results. You can read the article below or go to PCARRD website.

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Best Harvesting Process For Sugar Palm Identified

Indang, Cavite — Researchers from Cavite State University (CvSU) identified the frequency of slicing the stalk and time of harvest as control points in harvesting sugar palm (Arenga pinnata Wurmb). research paper logo

Fe Dimero, Marvin Vicedo, and Mark Mojica of CvSU conducted a study to find out the best harvesting process for sugar palm. The researchers recommend that twice a day slicing of the inflorescence trunk during collection must be practiced to maintain high volume of harvested sap.

Slicing the stalk twice a day significantly increased the volume of harvested sap compared with slicing only once a day and no tapping. The physico-chemical as well as the sensory properties of the sugar palm sap was not affected.

During collection, the researchers used three types of containers—open containers hung on the stalk, covered containers, and bamboo pipes. They found out that the collection vessel has no significant effect on the sap collected. Results indicated that incidence of contamination during harvest was very low. This means that the collection vessel is not considered as a control point.

The sap collected during the night was more acidic and had more soluble solids than the sap from the day collection. Thus, time of sap collection was considered a control point in harvesting sugar palm sap.

Based on the properties of the sugar palm sap, sap collected during the night is best for vinegar production while those collected during the day can be best used for juice, syrup, and sugar production.

Sugar palm is the source of a sweet sap, locally known as “tuba.” The sap is taken from the cut stalk of the male inflorescence by a process called tapping. This process involves slightly beating the inflorescence stalk followed by a series of stalk slicing for continuous flow of sap. Day and night collection of sap is done to ensure continuous collection.

This information was presented during the Research and Development (R&D) Symposium of the Southern Tagalog Agriculture and Resources Research and Development Consortium (STARRDEC) in Region IV held in Calapan City, Mindoro. STARRDEC is the consortium of R&D agencies in Region IV organized by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD). (Leila C. America, S&T Media Service)

Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Accepts coaching and consultancy services. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.

How to Make Herb-Flavored Sugar Palm Juice, Kaong/Irok

Kaong sap can be processed to delectable juice with different herb as flavoring.  Joan Napili used four different type of herbs: anise, basil, pandan and tarragon. Here are the details of her simple technology:

Pasteurization. Freshly harvested sugar palm sap was filtered through cotton to remove foreign materials or impurities such as dirt, sand, insects, tiny twigs or leaf fragments. The filtered fresh sap was pasteurized at 75 oC for 15 min in a stainless steel saucepan to prevent further fermentation. Foams that float on the sap on heating were removed using a wooden ladle.

Preparation of Herb Extracts. Herb extracts were prepared using infusion method. Twenty grams each of fresh anise, basil, pandan, tarragon and rosemary were boiled separately in 250 ml of water for ten minutes. Each herb extract was filtered, placed in a tightly sealed container and was stored in the refrigerator until needed.

Juice Formulation and Standardization. The filtered sap was heated using a double broiler at a temperature of 75 0C to concentrate the sap and raise the sugar content of the sap to 16 0B for 4 hr. Total titratable acid was adjusted to 0.8 + 0.02 and pH was standardized to 4 + 0.5 before adding the herb extracts.

Blending and Flavoring. Anise, basil, pandan and tarragon were added separately using three percent by volume combination. Since rosemary is pungently aromatic (Grieve, 2004), it was added at two percent by volume.

Filling. The different herb-flavored kaong juices were packed manually into 200 ml aluminum pouches. The filled juice was pasteurized for 30 minutes at 75 0C on water bath. The filed pouches were sealed immediately.

different-type-of-herbs

Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Accepts coaching and consultancy services. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.

Sugar Palm Syrup for Kaong Meat Preserve, Minatamis na Irok

Fe N. Dimero, G. C. Panganiban, M. J. Austria and L. B. Catuncan developed a technology to utilized sugar palm sap for processing of kaong meat preserve / minatamis na irok. This is a healthier alternative because sugar palm syrup has  low glycemic indexminatamis na kaong

Sap Extraction. Sap was collected from cut stalk of male florescence of the sugar palm into plastic containers hung on the stalk. Twice a day slicing of the stalk was done to sustain copious sap flow. Collected sap was immediately pasteurized to 80oC to inactivate microbial fermenters that may convert natural sugars to alcohol.

Process Standardization. Freshly harvested and pasteurized sugar palm sap was concentrated by heating over medium fire for 1 hr or until 16oB sugar concentration is attained.

One kilogram of sugar palm meat was cooked in 2 liters of the prepared light syrup for 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 hours under medium fire. The sweet sugar palm meat preserve was filled into bottles and immediately processed for 15 min in boiling water before complete sealing.

Properties. The results of sensory evaluation of the sugar palm meat preserves indicate that cooking for at least 1.5 hr resulted to better aroma, decreased sourness, increased sweetness, and more desirable flavor. Further cooking for 2 – 2.5 hr significantly increased sweetness, softened the meat, removed off flavor and alcoholic taste and resulted to more acceptable product.

Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Accepts coaching and consultancy services. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.

The Making of Arenga Pinnata Vinegar

kakaong-vinegar-in-earthen-jar

I listed the names to avoid further confusions.

English name: Sugar palm
Filipino common name: Irok or Kaong
Scientific name: Arennga pinnata

Arengga pinnata vinegar became a popular product of Indang. In fact, it became the town’s entry in “One Town, One Product” program of previous Gov. Ayong Maliksi. Town folks celebrates Arengga Festival every year.

The product gave fortune to those few businessmen but not to mangangarit. Arengga vinegar is marketed as natural health remedy. I became a hit in local and export market. I never question its effectiveness because I am using it to cure my cough and soar throat.

Mangangarit do the hard job of collecting sweet sap of sugar palm. They know very well how to turn it to vinegar. The problems lie between packaging and product marketing. The lack of money to buy good packaging materials and to market the product effectively. I hope the local government can do something about this.

kakaong-vinegar-in-earthen-jar

Arengga vinegar can be easily made by fermenting fresh sap into plastic or earthen jar until it becomes sour. Then pack into plastic bottles and place under the heat of sun for few days. The very common package is a used 1.5 liters Coke bottle.

Quality control is a must to sustain product quality. Technical knowledge should be shared by research institution.

Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Accepts coaching and consultancy services. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.

How to Make Kaong and Coconut Wine – Toddy

kaong-sap-juice

One of the common products of coconut and kaong is the sap or juice. Sap is processed to vinegar and lambanog but processing it to wine or commonly called toddy is neglected.  The juice is sweet with initial sugar content of 20% . Natural juice microflora spontaneously ferment it to wine and vinegar. Toddy processing lies in successful arrest of natural  vinegar fermentation.

The term coconut wine or kaong wine should not be mistaken with lambanog or vodka. Wine contains 9-18 % alcohol while vodka contains 35-50% . The usual alcohol content for lambanog is 80 proof or 40%. Wine goes through distillation process to produce 80 proof vodka.

Wild yeast are responsible for fermenting sugars to alcohol. I requires no oxygen during the process. Then, acetic acid bacteria that are naturally present in sap ferment alcohol to vinegar. It requires oxygen to take action.  We’re gonna kill vinegar producing bacteria during wine making process.

1. Clean all equipment that will be used for sap collection. This will help reduce microbial contamination.  Sap are collected from unopened coconut flower and sugar palm (kaong) male inflorescence. Mixing of two liquid is permissible.

2. Collect sap every 5 hours. Longer collection interval allows acetic acid bacteria to convert it to vinegar. Soured juice is not fitted for toddy processing.

3. Transfer to fermentation tank. A narrow mount jar with cotton plug will do. Leave enough head space to accommodate rising bubbles. Fermentation is done when bubbling ceases. Alcohol fermentation occurs in anaerobic condition while vinegar conversion occurs only with the presence of oxygen. Avoid air exposure of sap to prevent sourness.

4. Pasteurize for 15 minutes at 75 degree centigrade. Pack immediately in clean jars.  It can be consumed immediately but aging will develop its flavor further.

5. If a great tasting wine is desired, age it for at least one year. The longer the aging, the more delectable it becomes. Then, siphon the clear liquid and fill into sterilized bottles. Label

Notes:

Measure the following physico-chemical properties and and adjust accordingly to your set standard. These properties should be uniform every batch.

a. sugar content. Sugar concentration can be increased by adding sugar or can be lowered by adding water or pulp.

b. pH. This can be lowered by adding citric acid or can be increased by adding water or pulp.

c. titrable acidity. Same as in (a), just replace sugar with citric acid. Be cautious because citric acid affects both pH and titrable acidity.

Adjustments can be computed using Pearson’s Square formula.

kaong-sap-juice

Marvin is the lead chocolate maker of Ben and Lyn Chocolate Inc. Has strong background in food research and development. Occasionally conducts training and lectures. Accepts coaching and consultancy services. Lecturer of Cocoa Foundation of the Philippines.