Mangosteen Pericarp, From Sun Drying To…

It is obvious that I cannot possibly consume the rest of 12 mangosteen rind halves in a day or within a week.  The good thing I have in mind is dry them so it can be stored in shelf conditions.

mangosteen rind quartersSunshine is free. It is always there for the taking. It is up to us how we can make good use of it. Drying this mangosteen rind under the heat of yellow sun is my own little way of harnessing sun’s energy.

I patiently cut all the rind to small slices. This allows more surface area for moisture evaporation and thus faster drying.

mangosteen pericarp slicesmangosteen rind slices under the sunto be continued…..

Boiling The Mangosteen Rind

After savoring all the mangosteen fruits. Mangosteen which I bought from nearby public market. I tried making tea straight from the fresh rind.

I consumed all six fruits all by myself. I tried sharing the rest after finishing one fruit but they simply never liked it. The burst of extreme sweetness was a turn off for them. They would like it better if it tasted sweeter and less sour.  Whatever, the flavor was fine for me. It was a lot better than a sour santol fruit.

mangosteen rindsI browsed the web trying to find any specific instructions on how to prepare mangosteen tea straight from fresh rind. I got tired and only found procedures for commercially prepared tea bags and powders.  I had to do a DIY for myself.

Preparing a cup. Whole rind for a cup might be too much. Half-rind might be too much too. I decided to go with 1/4 rind. Placed the rind in pan. Added two cups water and boiled for 30 minutes.

mangosteen pericarp in two cups waterShort explanation. Mangosteen tips stated that xanthones, the dominant phytochemical, is heat stable and only absorbed by the body in small quantities. Too much might hinder absorption. Thirty minutes boiling time was half of what a reader suggested on “How to Make Mangosteen Tea” article and it is the time when I observed a significant color change. Half of the water evaporated and only resulted to one cup as expected.

fresh mangosteen teaTea time. It was like sipping a hot water with a dark red color. I could not perceived taste of any kind.

Mangosteen, In The Flesh

Wow! Mangosteen.

mangosteen fruitsHow much?

It cost 100 pesos per kilogram.

Where did it came from?

The seller said it came from Davao. Okay. I get it. It traveled all the way from Davao to Indang. It explains why it cost so much. Adding the fact that it is a well-known health fruit.  I cannot imagine how much it will cost me if I travel to Davao just to buy mangosteen.

I bought half kilo for the price of 50 pesos. About six pieces mangosteen fruits. I think the price is not as expensive as I thought, considering the price of locally produce dragon fruit is about as much.

The seller reminds me that I am really paying for the peels and not for the flesh. I feel that she is true to her words. She is keeping several peels on her side. I also read many articles about this mangosteen. The fruit is valued for its peels. Drinking tea extracted from peels is a good habit.

The large stalks are obviously included in price computation. I hope they are healthy too.

The dark read skin looks tough but it is soft and can be readily broken with bare hands. Inside are several seeds which have close resemblance to santol. Small seeds have no real seeds while the large have, see image below. The white cottony pulp  gives a sudden burst of extreme sourness and a mild sweet taste in the end.

mangosteen seeds pulp cottonymangosteen large seed pulp peelmangosteen seed pulpI am going to try my self-prepared mangosteen tea next time.

Mangosteen Xanthones Tips and Some Laboratory Studies

TIPS…

I am looking for mangosteen tea preparation steps. Tips on how to steep/boil fresh skin or dry rind. The specific temperature for how many minutes or hours. However, I found out that xanthones, the dominant and most important mangosteen antioxidant, is relatively heat stable. Maybe boiling it is fine or steeping might be better.

Here are the other tips I found around the web. Most of them are supported by scientific studies.

1) Long term moderate consumption is recommended. Xanthones are absorb only in small amounts. Large doses are not beneficial and tend to lower absorption efficiency.

Xanthone Bioavailability (Preliminary)||| Michael W. Pugh, B.S. ||| Research & Development for XanGo, LLC

2) Aside from xanthones, it has other beneficial substance like catechins, polysaccharides, proanthocyanidins and sterols.

3) Oven drying 60ºC is recommended for maximum retention of sensory qualities.  Addition of whey powder is preferred over maltodextrin – it helps maintain xanthone content and improves its solubility.

Drying Process and Mangosteen Rind Powder Product. ||| R. Sothornvit ||| International Society for Horticultural Science

4) Xanthones when taken with a high fat meal. Showed that xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed when ingested along with a high-fat meal, although release of xanthones from pericarp particles during digestion may be limited.

Xanthones in mangosteen juice are absorbed and partially conjugated by healthy adults. ||| Chitchumroonchokchai C, Riedl KM, Suksumrarn S, Clinton SK, Kinghorn AD, Failla ML. ||| Department of Human Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. ||| J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):675-80. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Some Health Benefits supported with laboratory studies…

1) Xanthones showed anti-leukemic activities in animal studies. The allanxanthone C and  macluraxanthone.

Therapeutic activity of two xanthones in a xenograft murine model of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia. ||| J Hematol Oncol. 2010 Dec 7;3:49.  Loisel S, Le Ster K, Meyer M, Berthou C, Youinou P, Kolb JP, Billard C. ||| EA 2216, Universit de Bretagne, Brest, France.

2) Twenty seven oxygenated xanthones showed anti-fungal activities against strains of Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus.  The 1,2-dihydroxyxanthone was found to be the most effective.

Antifungal activity of xanthones: evaluation of their effect on ergosterol biosynthesis by high-performance liquid chromatography. ||| Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011 Mar;77(3):212-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2010.01072.x. Epub 2011 Jan 19. |||  Pinto E, Afonso C, Duarte S, Vale-Silva L, Costa E, Sousa E, Pinto M. ||| Research Center of Medicinal Chemistry – University of Porto (CEQUIMED-UP), R. Anbal Cunha, 164, 4050-047, Porto, Portugal. epinto@ff.up.pt

3) Alpha-mangostin maybe useful in therapeutic treatment of breast cancer.

Alterations in Cell Cycle and Induction of Apoptotic Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells Treated with α-Mangostin Extracted from Mangosteen Pericarp. ||| Kurose H, Shibata MA, Iinuma M, Otsuki Y. ||| Division of Life Sciences, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. ||| J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:672428. Epub 2012 Apr 8.

4) Laboratory study. Mangosteen xanthones showed high microbial activities.

Antibacterial activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (L.) and their structure-activity relationship studies. ||| Dharmaratne HR, Sakagami Y, Piyasena KG, Thevanesam V. ||| a Natural Products Programme, Institute of Fundamental Studies , Kandy , Sri Lanka.

5) Mangosteen xanthose  has an anti-angiogenic effect. Anti-angiogenic are substance used to control growth of new blood vessels.  Inhibitors are used to treat cancer, macular degeneration in the eye, and other diseases that involve a proliferation of blood vessels.

Anti-angiogenic effect of α-mangostin. ||| Shiozaki T, Fukai M, Hermawati E, Juliawaty LD, Syah YM, Hakim EH, Puthongking P, Suzuki T, Kinoshita K, Takahashi K, Koyama ||| K. J Nat Med. 2012 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print] ||| Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan.

6) Alpha-mangostin might be useful for preventing or treating obesity.

α-Mangostin induces apoptosis and suppresses differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via inhibiting fatty acid synthase. ||| Quan X, Wang Y, Ma X, Liang Y, Tian W, Ma Q, Jiang H, Zhao Y. ||| College of Life Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ||| PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33376. Epub 2012 Mar 9.

There are over 170 mangosteen related studies on PubMed.gov. Take some time seeing it for yourself.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez/?term=mangosteen

References:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
http://www.actahort.org/members/showpdf?booknrarnr=928_29
http://mangosteenmd.com/history/xanthone.php
http://www.thewholefruit.com/research.php

How to Make Mangosteen Preserve

mangosteen-preserve

Like mango and pineapple, mangosteen can be made into fruit preserve.

Ingredients:
200 pieces mangosteen
1 kilo sugar

mangosteen-preserve

Procedure:
1. Remove the pericarp. Apply pressure with the thumb to remove the seeds.
2. Add 1 kilo white sugar to the fruits.
3. Boil for 35 to 50 minutes with constant stirring until the concoction turns light brown.
Packed in sterilized bottles.

mangosteen technology was provided by Department of Agriculture

See procedures for jam, marmalade and jelly making. You may apply those procedures to mangosteen.

Notes:
Measure the following physico-chemical properties and and adjust accordingly to your set standard. Adjustments can be computed using Pearson’s Square formula.

a. sugar content. Sugar concentration can be increased by adding sugar or can be lowered by adding water or pulp.
b. pH. This can be lowered by adding citric acid or can be increased by adding water.
c. titrable acidity. Same as in (a), just replace sugar with citric acid. Be cautious because citric acid affects both pH and titrable acidity.