Rare ripe papaya is crunchy and slightly sweet. It can be eaten plain or with sweet and sour vinegar, with mayonnaise, with ketchup or any condiment of choice. It is a good replacement for growing numbers of junk foods.
1) Choose a rare ripe papaya, soft fruits are not suitable for this purpose. Wash and peel.
2) Cut papaya into halves and quarters. Scrape off the seeds and the white spongy mass. Slice to desired sizes.
3) Prepare the sweet and sour vinegar. Add chili and sugar to vinegar to attain the desired flavor mixed.
4) Add the sliced papaya to prepared sweet and sour vinegar. Allow the mixture to penetrate the fruit for few minutes.
Coconut water is a waste product, which is produced in appreciable quantities in the Philippines, Sri Lanka Thailand and other countries. Its conversion into vinegar therefore presents an attractive option for decreasing wastage and producing a valuable product ( Mr. Mike Battcock and Dr. Sue Azam-Ali).
Coconut water is a good base for vinegar, but its sugar content is too low (only about 1%). Sugar needs to be added to bring the level of sugar up to 15%. After the addition of sugar, the coconut juice is allowed to ferment for about seven days, during which time the sugar is converted to alcohol. An alternative method is to pasteurize the coconut water and sugar mixture and add yeast.
After this initial fermentation, strong vinegar (10% v/v) is added to stimulate the growth of acetic acid bacteria and discourage further yeast fermentation. The acetic acid fermentation takes approximately one month, yielding a vinegar with approximately 6% acetic acid. The fermentation will take less time than this if a generator is used.
After fermentation, the vinegar must be stored in anaerobic conditions to prevent spoilage by the oxidation of acetic acid. (Steinkraus, 1996)
Clarification can be achieved by stirring with a well beaten egg white, heating until the egg white coagulates and filtering (Anon).
Write ups by Mr. Mike Battcock and Dr. Sue Azam-Ali
Measure the following physico-chemical properties and and adjust accordingly to your set standard. Properties should be uniform every batch.
a. sugar content. Sugar concentration can be increased by adding sugar or can be lowered by adding water or pulp.
b. pH. This can be lowered by adding citric acid or can be increased by adding water or pulp.
c. titrable acidity. Adjustment can be made by mixing different concentrations or addition of citric acid.
e. See standard for vinegar here.
There are three ways to produce vinegars. These includes the orleans process, the quick vinegar method and the natural spontaneous fermentation.
The Orleans process
The Orleans process is one of the oldest and well known methods for the production of vinegar. It is a slow, continuous process, which originated in France. High grade vinegar is used as a starter culture, to which wine is added at weekly intervals. The vinegar is fermented in large (200 litre) capacity barrels. Approximately 65 to 70 litres of high grade vinegar is added to the barrel along with 15 litres of wine. After one week, a further 10 to 15 litres of wine are added and this is repeated at weekly intervals. After about four weeks, vinegar can be withdrawn from the barrel (10 to 15 litres per week) as more wine is added to replace the vinegar.
One of the problems encountered with this method is that of how to add more liquid to the barrel without disturbing the floating bacterial mat. This can be overcome by using a glass tube which reaches to the bottom of the barrel. Additional liquid is poured in through the tube and therefore does not disturb the bacteria. Wood shavings are sometimes added to the fermenting barrel to help support the bacterial mat.
Quick vinegar method
Because the Orleans process is slow, other methods have been adapted to try and speed up the process. The German method is one such method. It uses a generator, which is an upright tank filled with beechwood shavings and fitted with devices which allow the alcoholic solution to trickle down through the shavings in which the acetic acid bacteria are living. The tank is not allowed to fill as that would exclude oxygen which is necessary for the fermentation. Near the bottom of the generator are holes which allow air to be drawn in. the air rises through the generator and is used by the acetic acid bacteria to oxidise the alcohol. This oxidization also releases considerable amounts of heat which must be controlled to avoid causing damage to the bacteria.
It can be made easily by fermenting fresh sap into plastic or earthen jar until it becomes sour. Then pack into plastic bottles and place under the heat of sun for few days. The very common package is a used 1.5 liters Coke bottle. Sugar palm and coconut sap are common examples.
write ups regarding orleans process and quick vinegar methods are courtesy of Mr. Mike Battcock
and Dr. Sue Azam-Ali
The picture above are vinegars. Can you guess which is natural and which is synthetic ?
The left picture is synthetic vinegar and the right picture is natural. Why ? Those vinegars are two months old vinegar. At first day both vinegars are cloudy. But they have different color. The left is white while the right is brownish. As time goes by. The suspended solids in vinegar coagulate and sink . This will give natural vinegars its crystal clear color and bottom sediments. This phenomenon will not happen to synthetic vinegar because manufacturer use chemical cloudifier.
Most synthetic vinegars are cheap while natural vinegar double or triple the price. For health conscious individual, you can do some storage experiment in choosing your vinegar.