Philippine Standard for Wine, Beer, Brandy, Vodka and Whiskey

Basically, there are six types of wine.

1. Dry, Semi-dry and Sweet wine
2. Fortified and Unfortified wine
3. Sparkling wine, Still wine (effervescent of non-effervescent) and carbonated wine
4. Red and white wines
5. Special or Medicinal wines
6. Basi

Standard Specifications for Wine

Wine . The product made from natural alcoholic fermentation of a wide variety of sugary materials including juices extracted from flowers, fruits, herbs, etc. containing not less than 9% but not more than 16% alcohol by volume.

Dry wine. A wine which contains less than 1 gram of sugar in 100 ml at 20 degree C.

Sweet Wine. Wine which contains not more than 8 grams of sugar in 100 ml at 20 degree C.

Semi-dry Wine. A wine which contains not less than 1 gram but not more than 8 grams of sugar in 100ml at 20 degree C.

Fortified Wine. Wine which derive some of it alcoholic content from fermentation and some from the addition of distilled spirits. It contains more than 15% and not more than 22% alcohol.

Unfortified Wine. Wine whose alcoholic content is derived solely from fermentation.

Sparkling Wine. Wine bottled before the fermentation has ceased so that it contains carbon dioxide gas solution with a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. It may also be impregnated with CO2 by allowing the wine to undergo fermentation process in closed tanks and bottling under pressure or by simply carbonation the bottled wine under pressure.

Carbonated Wine. Wine which is rendered effervescent by imprenating CO2 and is designated as carbonated.

Still wine. Wine whose fermentation has been completed before bottling so that it contains only such proportion of the carbon dioxide produced in the fermentation as can remain dissolved in the liquid in equilibrium with the air under condition of manipulation.

Dragon Fruit Encounter


Way back year 2005 when I saw this weird fruit at Cavite State University, the place where I used to work. The Dragon fruit. I never like the look, especially the flesh. My officemate offered one slice but I refused. She said I was good and insisted but refused it again. I was so stubborn . Ha Ha! I never encountered that fruit again because I resigned from from my job.

Year 2009. I met my previous boss at Cavite State University. She offered to work again  as Research Assistant. The salary was good enough so I accepted it. Do you know what is the project ? Its about dragon fruit research and development! Oh my ! Its the fruit I refused to taste four years ago. I have no choice but to embrace this fruit.

Actually this fruits came from cactus. Tastes slightly sweet but tastes blunt most of the time. It also contains the nutrients found in other fruits. Based from my taste preference, I would prefer eating other fruits like mango, guava, apple, pineapple and soursop because they taste better. On the contrary, I love eating dragon fruit. Why? Because my vowel movement feels better everytime I eat this dragon fruit.

Dragon fruit has a lot of fibers which is known to aid in vowel movement. It also absorb excess fat we consume. There is one major drawback. This fruit is very expensive.


Dragon fruit can be processed into juice and wine.

Bad Effect of Wine ? The Sugar of Lead


Lead can make wine sweet. But beware, lead  is poisonous. It is a white crystalline compound with a sweet taste. Lead is also known as lead acetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, salt of saturn and Goulard’s powder – named after Thomas Goulard.


Lead as wine sweetener became popular during the Roman empire. It is attributed to the Roman delicacy sapa. It is prepared by boiling soured wine in lead kettles. The soured wine contains acetic acid which react to lead kettles forming lead acetate. Sapa has pleasant taste and aroma and was widely used in Roman cooking. Due to its lead content, it attributed to lead poisoning during the ancient Roman aristocracy.